Posted by: The staff | May 17, 2010

Park Development: Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center


From Mink:

One of the constant conundrums that national parks face is the balancing of preservation and conservation with accessibility and enjoyment. Part of the mission of parks is to provide for the enjoyment of its visitors, which involves the development of nationally significant natural and/or historic sites into parks.

Like all national parks, the Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park (FRSP) is often developing new trails, signs, and providing or improving ways for its visitors’ enjoyment. There have been two periods when intense and concentrated park development has occurred: the initial park development under the War Department, National Park Service and Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, and the Mission 66 period in the 1960s. While the first focused on creating roads and preparing the park for its first visitors, the second sought to upgrade and expand facilities and interpretive opportunities for both visitors and park staff. The most visible element of the Mission 66 development at FRSP is the Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center (CVC), which was, and continues to be, the subject of some controversy, scrutiny and criticism.

From the beginning, CVC has been criticized for its modernistic appearance and its location within the midst of a significant battlefield landscape.  This discussion will involve a series of posts, looking at the decision to build a visitor center at Chancellorsville, the choosing of a location for the building, its construction, and its service to the visitors for the last 50 years.

Decision to Build CVC

Beginning in 1956, FRSP, with the benefit of the Mission 66 program, pursued the funding and approval necessary for a new visitor center at Chancellorsville. It should be noted that NPS planners during the Mission 66 period coined the term “visitor center.” Up to that point, park visitor facilities were often referred to as museums and administrative buildings. Such was the case with the Fredericksburg Battlefield Museum and Administration Building, now known as the Fredericksburg Battlefield Visitor Center. This change in name reflected a change in focus for park facilities from providing simply information to visitor orientation and interpretation.

The park felt a strong desire for a new visitor center, in addition to the existing facility at Fredericksburg.  The need was best summed up by NPS staff in Washington:

“The situation at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania is perhaps unique within the National Park System. Here are commemorated four major battles of the Civil War. All were critical engagements, and the years covered run from 1862 to 1864. At present there is one visitor center building at Fredericksburg itself. This was not designed for a modern interpretive center, but it is the plan to make use of it. By some remodeling and by the use of two basement rooms which will definitely be makeshift, it will be possible to cover the Fredericksburg phase of the battle there. There will be no space, however, to treat the battles of Chancellorsville, Spotsylvania, and the Wilderness, and there is no storage space. A visitor center at Chancellorsville is needed to tell the story of the other three battles and to tie together the entire campaign, as well as to provide adequate storage.”

Once the decision had been made to construct a new visitor center at Chancellorsville Battlefield, the next step was to choose a location. That debate is covered here.

Eric J. Mink

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Responses

  1. You have to upgrade roads and buildings and that means that some trees will have to be cut down and some holes dug. If you just leave it you will have some major renovations to do in the future.

  2. The greatest intrusion in the name of improvement at Chancellorsville, was the widening of Route 3 by VDOT. The canal of a roadway they built right to the edge of the Jackson wounding monument has to rank as one of the worst encroachments on an historic site, topped only by the wreck of the Salem Church area.

    • You are correct, John, in that the widening of Route 3 has greatly affected the battlefield. The additional lanes through this part of Chancellorsville are those running east. Interestingly, the impending road expansion influenced the location chosen for the visitor center.

      Eric

  3. Thank you for your informaton. Is it possible to buy a book about your Park telling me something concerning its history and development.

    • Henrique – Unfortunately, there is no book available that discusses the the history and development of the Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. Such a history was written back in 1956, but it was never published. Currently, Dr. Joan Zenzen is in the process of writing a new administrative history for the park. When it is finished, it will be made available to the public.

      – Eric Mink

  4. HELLO , I recently visited Chancellorsville Battlefield and took many pictures of the wayside markers and upon development of the pictures one didn’t come out clearly enough to read : “Bloody Morning”, which if at all possible someone could transcribe the message writen on this particular marker would be very helpful !! I’ve tried all the interpretive sites on-line and cannot find this one !!

    • Dennis: I’ll send you a pdf of the exhibit when I get back to the office on Monday. Thanks for being interested enough to ask…. John H.


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